There are various methods for the hobbyist to make PCB boards. I use the toner transfer method because it is cheap and requires relatively little setup or equipment. You need access to a laser printer or photocopier, an iron, and you'll need an etching solution.
Double-sided printed circuit boards have wiring patterns on both sides of the insulating material, i.e. the circuit pattern is available both on the components side and the solder side. Obviously, the component density and the conductor lines are higher than the single-sided boards. Double-sided board with plated through-hole connection (PTH) Double-sided board without plated through-hole connection (non-PTH) Double-sided PTH board has circuitry on both sides of an insulating substrate, which is connected by metallizing the wall of a hole in the substrate that intersects the circuitry on both sides. This technology, which is the basis for most printed circuits produced, is becoming popular in cases where the circuit complexity and density is high. Double-sided non-PTH board is only an extension of a single-sided board. Its cost is considerably lower because plating can be avoided. In this case, through contacts are made by soldering the component leads on both sides of the board, wherever required. In the layout design of such boards, the number of solder joints on the component side should be kept to a minimum to facilitate component removal, if required. It is generally recommended that conductors should be realized as much as possible on the non-component side and only the remaining should be placed on the component side
Double-sided printed circuit boards have wiring patterns on both sides of the insulating material, i.e. the circuit pattern is available both on the components side and the solder side. Obviously, the component density and the conductor lines are higher than the single-sided boards.
A multilayer PCB board is used in situations where the density of connections needed is too high to be handled by two layers or where there are other reasons such as accurate control of line impedances or for earth screening.
Flexible electronics, also known as flex circuits, is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide and PEEK Film. Additionally, flex circuits can be screen printed silver circuits on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using identical components used for rigid printed circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to flex during its use. These flexible printed circuits (FPC) are made with a photolithographic technology. An alternative way of making flexible foil circuits (FFCs) is laminating very thin (0.07 mm) copper strips in between two layers of PET. These PET layers, typically 0.05 mm thick, are coated with an adhesive which is thermosetting, and will be activated during the lamination process. FPCs and FFCs have several advantages in many applications:
As Metal Core PCB means the base material for PCB is metal, but not normal FR4/CEM1-3, etc, and currently what the metal used are Aluminum, Copper alloy. MCPCBs are used instead of traditional FR4 or CEM3 PCBs because of the ability to efficiently dissipate heat away from the components. This is achieved by using a Thermally Conductive Dielectric Layer. The main difference between a FR4 board and MCPCB is the thermally conductive dielectric material in the MCPCB. This acts as a thermal bridge between the IC components and metal backing plate. Heat is conducted from the package through the metal core to an additional heat sink. On the FR4 board the heat remains stagnant if not transferred by a topical heatsink. According to Avago's white paper a MCPCB with a 1W LED remained near an ambient of 25C, while the same 1W LED on a FR4 board reached 12C over ambient.